While the alliance’s 2016 Warsaw Summit in July acknowledged the gravity of Russia’s military and political assertiveness in the Black Sea region, many questions remain. What impact do the Kremlin’s military capabilities and posturing have on the security of Black Sea states? What are the implications for relations among Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Turkey? Equally important, how are vulnerable eastern flank allies—particularly two of NATO’s newest members, Romania and Bulgaria—likely to respond?
In CEPA’s Strategic Report No. 2, “Black Sea Defended,” co-authors Janusz Bugajski and Peter Doran explore the pathways towards a lasting Black Sea deterrent based on regional cooperation, an increased NATO presence and the buildout of advanced military capabilities among frontline allies in Southeastern Europe.